YOU ARE FOR SOMEONE........arent u....??

Lady : Why do you like me..? Why do you love me? 
Man : I can't tell the reason.. but I really like you..

Lady : You can't even tell me the reason... how can you say you like me? 
How can you say you love me?
Man : I really don't know the reason, but I can prove that I love you.

Lady : Proof? No! I want you to tell me the reason. My friend's boyfriend can tell her why he loves her but not you! 
Man : Ok..ok!!! Erm..because you are beautiful, because your voice is sweet, because you are caring, because you are loving, because you are thoughtful, because of your smile, because of your every movement.

The lady felt very satisfied with the man's answer.
Unfortunately, a few days later, the Lady met with an accident and became comma.  The Guy then placed a letter by her side, and here is the content:
Because of your sweet voice that I love you...
Now can you talk? No! Therefore I cannot love you.

Because of your care and concern that I like you... 
Now that you cannot show them, therefore I cannot love you.

Because of your smile, because of your every movements that I love you.. 
Now can you smile? Now can you move? No, therefore I cannot love you...

If love needs a reason, like now, there is no reason for me to love you anymore.
Does love need a reason?  NO! 
Therefore, I still love you... And love doesn't need a reason.

Sometimes the best and the most beautiful things in the world cannot be seen, cannot be touched, but can be felt in the heart "
Make sure No one misses this message 
keep Forwarding this wonderful message.
Keep Loving.
Show your presence..


બૉસ, આ ગુજરાત છે !

અહીં પ્રેમ કેરો સાદ છે
પ્રભુજીનો પ્રસાદ છે
ને પ્રકૃતિનો વરસાદ છે !
બૉસ, આ ગુજરાત છે ! 

અહીં નર્મદાનાં નીર છે
માખણ અને પનીર છે
ને ઊજળું તકદીર છે !
યસ, આ ગુજરાત છે !

અહીં ગરબા-રાસ છે
વળી જ્ઞાનનો ઉજાસ છે
ને સોનેરી પરભાત છે
અલ્યા, આ ગુજરાત છે !

અહીં ભોજનમાં ખE0ર છે
સંસ્કારમાં ખમીર છે
ને પ્રજા શૂરવીર છે !
કેવું આ ગુજરાત છે !

અહીં વિકાસની વાત છે
સાધુઓની જમાત છે
ને સઘળી નાત-જાત છે
યાર, આ ગુજરાત છે !

અહીં પર્વોનો પ્રાસ છે
તીર્થો તણો પ્રવાસ છે
ને શૌર્યનો સહવાસ છે !
દોસ્ત, આ ગુજરાત છે !

According to the August 8 report of the National Council of Applied Economic Research, the richest city in India is now Surat, ahead of Bangalore and Mad ras, with an average annual household income of Rs 0.45 million (over  $11,000 per year).

80 per cent of all diamonds sold anywhere in the world are polished in Surat's 10,000 diamond units.

The only non-Jews in the Tel Aviv and Jerusalem diamond bourse (stock exchange)  are GUJARATI (Not Gujjus..)

Between 2004-5 and 2007-8 Surat's middle class doubled in size and its poor reduced by a third...

The fifth richest city in India is now Ahmadabad, ahead of Bombay and Delhi, and miles ahead of Calcutta.

The percentage of man-days lost in Gujarat due to labor unrest is 0.42 per cent, the lowest in India. 

Of Gujarat's 18,048 villages, 17,940 have electricity.  Under Chief Minister Modi, the face of industrial Gujarat is changing. 

The world's largest oil refinery is coming up in Jamnagar. Owned by Reliance, it already refines 660,000 barrels of oil a day and will double that this year.

Thirty per cent of India's cotton is grown in Gujarat, 40 per cent of India's art-silk is manufactured in Surat, employing 0.7 million people.

The world's third largest denim manufacturer is Ahmedabad's  Arvind Mills.

A KPMG report says 40 per cent of India's pharmacy industry is based in Gujarat with companies like Torrent, Zydus Cadila, Alembic, Dishman and Sun Pharma.
The state of Gujarat's GDP has been growing at 12 per cent a year for the last 12 years, as fast as China's. 

India's wealthiest man, Mukesh Ambani of Reliance, is Gujarati. 

Forbes says he is the world's fifth richest man, worth $43 billion. 

Azim Premji of Wipro, is Gujarati. He is the world's 21st richest man, worth $17 billion.

Ten of the 25 richest Indians are Gujarati.  Some of the best business communities in India -- Parsis, Jains, Memons, Banias, Khojas and Bohras -- speak Gujarati.

The two great leaders of the subcontinent, the Mahatma and the Quaid, were both Gujaratis from trading communities.  One a Bania, the other a Khoja.

Gujaratis number 55 million, five per cent of India's population living on six per cent of surface area, but hold 30 per cent of all Indian stock.

Gujaratis account for 16 per cent of all Indian exports and 17 per cent of GDP.

Requesting all gujaratis to forward this link to all GUJARATI

Secret of Life

Jivan  me saphal hone ke liye 3 factory lagao.

1) Dimag me Ice factory.
    2) Zuban par Sugar factory.  
Phir life hogi satisfactory. .

Ek din sagar ne nadi se pucha:
kab tak milti rahogi mujh khare jal se?
nadi ne haskar kaha:
jab tak tujh me mithas na aa jaye tab tak

Dostana andaz Mujh se kisi ne pucha,
Tum sabko sms bhejhte ho ? Tumhe kya milta hai ?
Maine hass kar kaha, Dena Lena to Vyaapar hai,
Jo dekar kuch na mange, Wo hi to PYAR hai.

1 tree makes 1 Lakh matchsticks.
But 1 matchstick can burn 1 Lakh trees.
Similarly 1 negative thought or doubt can burn thousands of
dreams....Be Positive!

Chehre ki hasi se har ghum chupao,
Bahut kuch bolo par kuch na batao...
Khud na rutho kabhi par sabko manao
Ye Raaz he Zindagi ka, Bas Jite chale jao

Wah prabhu kya therri leela:
Chuha Billi se darta hai,
Billi Kutte se darti hai,
Kutta Aadmi se darta hai,
Aadmi Biwi se darta hai,
Biwi Chuhhe se darti hai 

Windows Mobile



Windows Mobile OS 

Windows Mobile is a compact operating system combined with a suite of basic applications for mobile devices based on the Microsoft Win32 API. Devices that run Windows Mobile include Pocket PCs, Smart phones, Portable Media Centers, and on-board computers for certain automobiles. It is designed to be somewhat similar to desktop versions of Windows, feature-wise and aesthetically. Additionally, third-party software development is available for Windows Mobile. Originally appearing as the Pocket PC 2000 operating system, Windows Mobile has been updated several times, with the current version being Windows Mobile 6.1, and a new release scheduled for 2009. 

Microsoft projected in 2008 that shipments of devices with Windows Mobile will increase from 11 million to 20 million units, but it missed its initial goal in only selling 18 million licenses citing the delayed launch of certain smart phones. Windows Mobile's market share as an operating system for smart phones worldwide has fallen from 23% in 2004 down to 12% in 2008. Windows Mobile has a worldwide Smartphone market share of 13% now. Microsoft licenses Windows Mobile to four out of the world's five largest mobile phone manufacturers, with Nokia being the other. 

Windows Mobile 6 is a platform for mobile devices, based on Windows CE 5.0, and used in a wide variety of third party hardware, such as Personal digital assistants (PDAs) and smart phones. Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 and the Windows Mobile SDK, make it possible to create software for the Windows Mobile platform in both native (Visual C++) and managed (Visual C#, Visual Basic .NET) code. 

Windows Mobile extends the familiarity of the Windows desktop to Windows Mobile powered devices. Windows Mobile is based on Windows Embedded CE and supports the .NET Compact Framework. By using the Windows Mobile platform, you can build innovative applications for mobile devices. The platform offers features such as data connectivity that is seamless and has enhanced security; rich API support such as Bluetooth and the Pocket Outlook Object Model (POOM); an extensive range of programming models that includes native code, managed code, and mobile web development; and device resources such as multithreading. You can reduce development time and costs by taking advantage of a familiar Windows development environment, a consistent programming model and comprehensive technical resources. 

Windows Mobile runs on multiple hardware platforms including Pocket PCs, smart phones, Portable Media Center, and automobiles. These hardware platforms did not always exist from the inception of Windows Mobile.

Pocket PC

The Pocket PC was the original intended platform for the Windows Mobile operating system. These devices consisted of both standalone Pocket PC devices without mobile phone capabilities, and those that included mobile phone capabilities. The most current name of Windows Mobile intended for use on Pocket PCs is officially "Windows Mobile 6 Professional" for devices with mobile phone capabilities and "Windows Mobile 6 Classic" for devices without mobile phone capabilities.


The Smart phone became the next hardware platform after the Pocket PC to run Windows Mobile, and debuted with the release of Pocket PC 2002. Although in the broad sense of the term "Smartphone", both Pocket PC phones and Microsoft branded Smartphones each fit into this category, it should be noted that Microsoft's use of the term "Smartphone" includes only more specific hardware devices that differ from Pocket PC phones.


Intended to be operated more efficiently with only one hand, and typically had lower resolution displays than Pocket PCs. Microsoft's focus for the Smartphone platform was to create a device that functioned well as a phone and data device in a more integrated manner. The current name of Windows Mobile intended for use on Smartphones is officially "Windows Mobile 6 Standard".

Portable Media Center

The Portable Media Center was a device that focused on integration with Microsoft's Windows Media Center and Windows Media Player to allow users to carry their media libraries with them on the go. The Portable Media Center was officially introduced in 2004, and ran a modified version of Windows Mobile. These devices became the predecessor to Microsoft's Zune, and after 2006 Microsoft discontinued the project in favor of the latter.

Windows Mobile 2003 

Windows Mobile 2003, originally codenamed "Ozone" was released on June 23, 2003, and was the first release under the Windows Mobile banner. It came in four editions: "Windows Mobile 2003 for Pocket PC Premium Edition", "Windows Mobile 2003 for Pocket PC Professional Edition", "Windows Mobile 2003 for Smartphone" and "Windows Mobile 2003 for Pocket PC Phone Edition".

The last was designed especially for Pocket PCs which include phone functionalities. The Professional Edition was used in Pocket PC budget models such as the iPAQ rz1700 series. It lacked a number of features that were in the Premium Edition, such as a client for L2TP/IPsec VPNs. Windows Mobile 2003 was powered by Windows CE 4.20. 

New features/built-in applications included the following: 

  • Support for add-on keyboards
  • Enhanced communications interface with Bluetooth device management
  • Bluetooth file beaming support
  • Bluetooth headset support
  • Pictures application with viewing, cropping, e-mail, and beaming support
  • Jawbreaker game
  • Enhanced Pocket Outlook with vCard and vCal support
  • Improved Pocket Internet Explorer
  • Windows Media Player 9.0 with streaming optimization
  • SMS reply options for Phone Edition
  • MIDI file support as ringtones in Phone Edition

Windows Mobile 5

Windows Mobile 5.0, originally codenamed "Magneto”was released at Microsoft's Mobile and Embedded Developers Conference 2005 in Las Vegas, May 9–May 12, 2005. Microsoft plans to offer mainstream support for Windows Mobile 5 through October 12, 2010, and extended support through October 13, 2015. It was first offered on the Dell Axim x51. It is powered by Windows CE 5.0 and used the .NET Compact Framework1.0 SP3 — an environment for programs based on .NET.                                           

Windows Mobile 5.0 included Microsoft Exchange Server "push" functionality improvements that worked with Exchange 2003 SP2.The "push" functionality also required vendor/device support  With AKU2 software upgrades all WM 5.0 devices supported DirectPush. WM 5.0 featured increased battery life due to Persistent storage capability. Previously up to 50% (enough for 72 hours of storage) of battery power was reserved just to maintain data in volatile RAM. 

This continued the trend of Windows-based devices moving from using RAM as their primary storage medium to the use of a combination of RAM and flash memory (in use, there's no distinction between the two apparent to the user). Programs and frequently accessed data run in RAM, while most storage is in the flash memory. 

 The OS seamlessly moves data between the two as needed. Everything is backed up in the flash memory, so unlike previous devices, WM5 devices don't lose any data if power is lost. With Windows Mobile 5.0, OS updates were released as Adaptation kit upgrades. AKU3.5 is the most current release. In performance, it was generally much slower and less stable than the previous WM2003SE, especially on older devices "upgraded" to WM5 but even on native WM5 devices. New features/built-in applications included the following: 

  • A new version of Office called "Office Mobile"
  • PowerPoint Mobile
  • Graphing capability in Excel Mobile
  • Tables and graphics insertion in Word Mobile
  • Windows Media Player 10 Mobile
  • Photo Caller ID
  • DirectShow support
  • Picture and Video package, which converged the management of videos and pictures
  • Enhanced Bluetooth support
  • Global Positioning System (GPS) management interface
  • Microsoft Exchange Server "push" functionality improvements
  • Default QWERTY keyboard-support
  • Error reporting facility similar to that present in desktop and server Windows systems
  • ActiveSync 4.2 with 15% increased synchronization speed
  • Persistent storage (PS) support in Pocket PCs
  • Increased battery life

 Windows Mobile 6

 Windows Mobile 6, formerly codenamed "Crossbow",was released on February 12, 2007 at the 3GSM World Congress 2007. It comes in three different versions: "Windows Mobile 6 Standard" for Smartphones (phones without touchscreens), "Windows Mobile 6 Professional" for Pocket PCs with phone functionality, and "Windows Mobile 6 Classic" for Pocket PCs without cellular radios. 

Windows Mobile 6 is powered by Windows CE 5.0 (version 5.2) and is strongly linked to Windows Live and Exchange 2007 products. Windows Mobile 6 Standard was first offered on the Orange's SPV E650, while Windows Mobile 6 Professional was first offered on the O2's Xda Terra. Aesthetically, Windows Mobile 6 was meant to be similar in design to the then newly released Windows Vista. Functionally, it works much like Windows Mobile 5, but with much better stability. New features/built-in applications include the following: 

  • 320x320 and 800x480 (WVGA) screen resolution support
  • Office Mobile support for Smartphones
  • Operating System Live Update
  • Improved Remote Desktop access (Available for only certain Pocket PCs)
  • VoIP (Internet calling) support with AEC (Acoustic Echo Cancelling) and MSRT Audio Codec
  • Windows Live for Windows Mobile
  • Customer Feedback option
  • Enhanced Microsoft Bluetooth Stack
  • Storage Card Encryption (encryption keys are lost if device is cold-booted).
  • Smartfilter for searching within programs
  • Improved Internet Sharing
  • HTML email support in Outlook Mobile
  • Search ability for contacts in an Exchange Server Address Book
  • AJAX, JavaScript, and XMLDOM support on Internet Explorer Mobile
  • Out of Office Replies with Microsoft Exchange 2007
  • Unlicensed Mobile Access (UMA) support for select operators
  • Server Search on Microsoft Exchange 2007
  • .NET Compact Framework v2 SP2 Preinstalled in ROM
  • Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Compact Edition Preinstalled in ROM
  • OneNote Mobile as a companion to Microsoft Office OneNote
  • Office Mobile 6.1 announced with support for Office 2007 document formats (pptx, docx, xlsx). 

This are the type of Windows Mobile OS supported platforms and applications and versions of it.            In next few months Microsoft also releasing the latest version of OS called Windows Mobile OS 6.1 and this will with backward compatibility and also many new features.

Knowledge Representation




What is a knowledge representation ? We  argue that the notion can best be understand in terms of five distinct roles it plays, each crucial to the task at hand:

 · A knowledge representation is most fundamentally a surrogate, a substitute for the thing itself, used to enable an entity to determine consequences by thinking rather than acting, i.e by reasoning about the world rather than taking action in it.

· It is a set of ontological commitments i.e an answer to the question: In what terms should I think about the world?

 · It is a fragmentary theory of intelligent reasoning, expressed in terms of three components:

(1)            the representation’s fundamental conception of intelligent reasoning;

(2)            the set of inference the  representation  sanctions; and

(3)            the set of inferences it recommends.

·       It is medium for pragmatically efficient computation, i.e the  computational environment in which thinking is accomplished. One contribution to this pragmatic efficiency is supplied  by the guidance a  representation provides for organizing information so as to facilitate making the recommended inferences. 

·    It is a medium of human expression , i.e. a language in which we say  things about the world.

 Knowledge representation is an area in artificial intelligence that is concerned with how to formally "think", that is, how to use a symbol system to represent "a domain of discourse" - that which can be talked about, along with functions that may or may not be within the domain of discourse that allow inference (formalized reasoning) about the objects within the domain of discourse to occur.

 Generally speaking, some kind of logic is used both to supply a formal semantics of how reasoning functions apply to symbols in the domain of discourse, as well as to supply (depending on the particulars of the logic), operators such as quantifiers, modal operators, etc. that along with an interpretation theory, give meaning to the sentences in the logic.


  It is a medium for pragmatically efficient computation, i.e. the computational environment in which thinking is accomplished. One contribution to this pragmatic efficiency is supplied by the guidance a  representation provides for organizing information so as to facilitate making the recommended inferences.

 Understand the roles and acknowledging their diversity has several useful consequences.

  ·       First, each role require something slightly different from a representation ; each accordingly leads to an interesting and different we want a representation  to have it.

 ·       Second, we believe the roles provide a framework useful for characterizing a wide variety of representations. We suggest that the fundamental “mindset” of a  representation can be captured by understanding how it views each of the roles , and that doing so reveals essentials similarities and differences.

·        Third, we believe that some previous disagreements about representation are usefully disentangled when all five roles are given appropriates consideration. We demonstrate this by revisiting and dissecting the early arguments concerning frames and logics.

·       Finally, we believe that viewing representation in this way has consequences for both research and practice. For research, this view provides one direct answer to a question of fundamental  significance in the field. It also suggest adopting a broad perspective on what’s important about a representation  and it makes the case that one significant part of the representation endeavor—capturing and representation the richness of the natural world—is receiving insufficient attention.

When we design a knowledge representation (and a knowledge representation system to interpret sentences in the logic in order to derive inferences from them) we have to make trades across a number of design spaces, described in the following sections. The single most important decision to be made, however is the expressivity of the KR. The more expressive, the easier (and more compact) it is to "say something". However, more expressive languages are harder to automatically derive inferences from. An example of a less expressive KR would be propositional logic. An example of a more expressive KR would be autoepistemic temporal modal logic.

History of knowledge representation:-

In computer science, particularly artificial intelligence, a number of representations have been devised to structure information.

KR is most commonly used to refer to representations intended for processing by modern computers, and in particular, for representations consisting of explicit objects (the class of all elephants, or Clyde a certain individual), and of assertions or claims about them ('Clyde is an elephant', or 'all elephants are grey'). Representing knowledge in such explicit form enables computers to draw conclusions from knowledge already stored ('Clyde is grey').

Many KR methods were tried in the 1970s and early 1980s, such as heuristic question-answering, neural networks, theorem proving, and expert systems, with varying success. Medical diagnosis (e.g., Mycin) was a major application area, as were games such as chess.

In the 1980s formal computer knowledge representation languages and systems arose. Major projects attempted to encode wide bodies of general knowledge; for example the "Cyc" project (still ongoing) went through a large encyclopedia, encoding not the information itself, but the information a reader would need in order to understand the encyclopedia.

Through such work, the difficulty of KR came to be better appreciated. In computational linguistics, meanwhile, much larger databases of language information were being built, and these, along with great increases in computer speed and capacity, made deeper KR more feasible.

Several programming languages have been developed that are oriented to KR. Prolog developed in 1972,[1] but popularized much later, represents propositions and basic logic, and can derive conclusions from known premises. KL-ONE (1980s) is more specifically aimed at knowledge representation itself. In 1995, the Dublin Core standard of metadata was conceived.

In the electronic document world, languages were being developed to represent the structure of documents, such as SGML (from which HTML descended) and later XML. These facilitated information retrieval and data mining efforts, which have in recent years begun to relate to knowledge representation.

Development of the Semantic Web, has included development of XML-based knowledge representation languages and standards, including RDF, RDF Schema, Topic Maps, DARPA Agent Markup Language (DAML), Ontology Inference Layer (OIL), and Web Ontology Language (OWL).